Chapter 19 Incorporation of America

  1. The Rise of Industry, The Triumph of Business

    1. A Revolution in Technology

      1. 1876-Philadelphia Centennial Exposition

        1. Telephone

      2. Edison’s lab, Menlo Park, NJ

        1. Mimeograph

        2. Stock ticker

        3. Light bulb

      3. 1903- Orville & Wilbur Wright

    2. Mechanization Takes Command

      1. Anthracite coal

        1. Iron production

        2. Power

      2. Assembly or disassembly line

      3. Facilitated production of:

        1. Meat

        2. Cars

        3. Cigarettes

    3. The Expanding Market for Goods

      1. Mail order

        1. Sears and Roebuck

        2. Montgomery Ward

      2. Chain stores

        1. A&P

        2. Woolworth

        3. Chains hurt independent retailers

      3. Department stores

        1. Marshall Field-Chicago

        2. Filene’s-Boston

        3. Emporium-San Fran

        4. Wanamaker’s-Philadelphia

        5. Macy’s-NYC

      4. Advertising

    4. Incorporation, Combination, and Merger

      1. 1873 and 1893 depressions helped larger companies become larger

      2. Vertical integration

        1. Control from raw materials to merchandising

      3. Horizontal integration

        1. Control of market for single product

      4. 1890-Sherman Antitrust Act

        1. Restore small businesses

        2. Encourage competition

    5. The Gospel of Wealth

      1. Fulfillment of protestant work ethic, in white, protestant America

      2. Jay Gould made money at any cost

      3. Andrew Carnegie made money and gave back to communities

      4. Social Darwinism-Origin of Species 1859

  2. Labor in the Age of Big Business

    1. The Wage System

      1. At dawn of century 2/3 of American’s working for wages

      2. Managers set rate of production and supervised workers

      3. Companies supplied tools

      4. Automated processes cut down on necessary skills and knowledge

      5. Immigrants filled jobs

        1. Immigrant and African-American women worked in domestic service

        2. White women moved into clerical work phones and typewriters

        3. African-American men excluded from many trades filled by immigrants

        4. Protests on Chinese labor-182 Chinese Exclusion Act

    2. The Knights of Labor

      1. Founded 1869- Philadelphia

        1. Child labor reform

        2. Graduated income tax

        3. Abolition of contract labor

        4. More land for homesteading

        5. Co-ops

          1. Co-ops could not compete against heavily capitalized enterprises

        6. 8-8-8 work-play-sleep

        7. Women, minorities, unskilled workers

        8. Haymarket

    3. The Bomb

      1. Immigration, ethnicity and religion were the major points of tension

      2. After the Civil War, and with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publication of Das Kapital, labor issues became the major points of tension

    4. Anarchy and Communism

      1. These 2 ideologies though different in their application were both against a capitalist society.

      2. Capitalist society being exactly what late 19th century America would be classified as

      3. Capitalism can be described as independent individuals making independent economic decisions in their own best interests

      4. In late 19th century, certain individuals were making their own economic decisions in their own best interests, and not those of the thousands working for them

      5. Among some of the names made famous as Robbers Barons, or heads of industries: Morgan, Carnegie, Rockefeller

      6. In Chicago: Pullman, Palmer, Field, Swift, Armour, McCormick, Sears, Ward

    5. Approaches to dealing with labor problems

      1. Some people like George Pullman, built company towns where they controlled all the variables, such as housing, work, church, and taverns, or lack thereof

      2. Some like Albert Parson encouraged state ownership of industry, assuming that through this venue the state would do what was in the best interests of the workers

    6. What was thought by leaders of industry

      1. Communists for state control of capital and anarchists against state or individual control of capital, wanted to subvert the present order of one owner of a company, take control of the company and then kill the owner in retribution for his having fleeced the workers to fill his own pocket

    7. What were some common complaints

      1. 6 day 10 hour work weeks were too long at standard pay

      2. 8 hour work days and overtime were desired

      3. Higher wages

    8. Brot oder Macht

      1. Thanksgiving 1884

      2. Anarchists and Communists carry black and red flags in protest parade

      3. Parade goes down State street past Palmer House and Fields

      4. Continues up to Prairie Avenue, where Palmer, Fields, Pullman, Swift… live and they ring on door bells asking for Bread or Power

    9. Mayday 1886

      1. May 1, 1886

      2. Albert and Lucy Parsons lead 80,000 person protest parade down Michigan Avenue for 8 hour work day

      3. Parade has anarchists, communists, union members…

    10. McCormick, the reaper

      1. In April 1886 workers at McCormick's plant were asking for higher wages

      2. McCormick refused the request

      3. The workers went on strike

      4. McCormick brought in strike breakers

    11. The bomb that broke the union's back

      1. May 3, 1886, 600 striking workers were meeting outside McCormick's International Harvester Plant

      2. Bell rang for shift change and hundreds of strikebreakers came out to go home

      3. Strikers faced with those taking there jobs began to fight

      4. Police and private guards hired by McCormick broke up fight, 2 people died

    12. The bomb

      1. Newspapers clamored against murder of 2 workers and called for a rally

      2. Rally set for Haymarket Square May 4, at night

      3. 1,500 showed up, but not much happened except speakers talk in the rain

      4. Mayor Carter Harrison even went to rally, so no reason for concern, stopped at local police station and informed police that there was no need for concern

      5. 300 people left and 1 speaker to go, when 150 police showed up and told people to go home

      6. Then the bomb went off killing 7 policemen and wounding 60

      7. Of 300 activists, not known how many died or were injured, because showing up for medical care would be a sure sign that they were there, and probable sign of guilt

    13. The fallout

      1. Next day, martial law in effect

      2. Where 2 or more are gathered, they can be arrested

      3. Police can enter home without warrants

      4. Union papers shut down

      5. Hundred of labor leaders arrested

      6. 7 charged

      7. Albert Parsons comes back from Wisconsin to stand with his co-revolutionaries

      8. All 8 tried and found guilty

      9. 4 hung

      10. 3 served life

      11. 1 killed himself with cigar bomb

      12. Communism, anarchy, and atheism, were really on trial, no one knows who the bomber was

      13. There was a movement to commute sentences, from around the world, but the most important person wanted them to hang, and that was Marshall Field

    14. The American Federation of Labor

      1. Samuel Gompers

        1. Refused to allow women, minorities, unskilled labor

        2. If companies refused to bargain, AFL would strike

        3. Labor day became national holiday 1894

  3. The New South

    1. An Internal Economy

      1. Raw materials in south like lumber, iron, coal, turpentine

      2. Northern investors began to build plants and lay track in the south

      3. The plants became successful, but wealth owned by northerners who gave back little to the south, and the southern economy remained poor

    2. Southern Labor

      1. Black labor remained mainly in agricultural venues, with a few workers in trades in larger cities

      2. Many black women worked as domestics

      3. Few immigrants in south

      4. Low wages in south

      5. Child labor, part of life in fields and factories

      6. Convict, chain-gang labor

    3. The Transformation of Piedmont Communities

      1. Virginia, Carolina, Georgia, Alabama

      2. As tenant farming became increasingly difficult many poor families moved to cities for factory work

      3. Factory towns

        1. Ministers and teachers reinforced work attitudes

  4. The Industrial City

    1. Populating the City

      1. Cities grew at twice the rate of population

      2. Railroads encouraged growth

      3. Many women went to cities for work

      4. Immigrants

    2. The Urban Landscape

      1. Tenements

        1. Packed people in

        2. Typical model five floors, 4 family apts per floor

      2. Rich lived in swank sections of town

      3. City Beautiful

        1. Libraries, court hose, churches, paved roads, schools, hospitals, museums

      4. Street cars

      5. Suburbs

    3. Fire began, due to Pre-existing conditions

      1. Since July, 1871 Chicago had received 1 inch of rain

      2. Crops were dry, trees were dry, bodies of water were low

      3. In September and October many small fires had occurred, which wore out the small fire department of Chicago

      4. When the fire bell rang on October 8, the already tired fireman were slow and reluctant to answer the call

    4. We didn’t start the fire

      1. October 8-9, 1871

      2. Fire starts in barn of Katherine O’Leary

        1. Female

        2. Irish

        3. Poor

        4. Catholic

        5. The bottom of the socio-economic heap

        6. Real perpetrator later found to be peg leg O’Sullivan who broke into barn to steal milk to mix with whiskey and make punch

          1. Irish, Poor, Catholic, Disabled, Drunk

    5. Burn baby burn

      1. City’s made of wood burn very well

      2. Chicago’s buildings almost exclusively made of wood

      3. Sidewalks made of wood

      4. Some streets have plank roads still

      5. Some streets made of tar and rock

    6. Burning down the house

      1. Since there had been no previous planning in construction of city, city built like powder keg

      2. Distilleries built next to turpentine factories next to paint factories next to lumber yards…

      3. Wooden bridges crossing river burnt

      4. Goo, for lack of a better word, and refuse in the river caused the river to catch fire, burn, and spread the fire

    7. Firestorm

      1. The mix of dryness, wind, and temperatures combined to create a firestorm, or a fire tornado, which grows bigger as it burns more items

      2. The fire and firestorm were hot enough to melt glass and steel, leaving little but globules and ash, where buildings once stood

    8. This is the end, the end my friend

      1. October 9, at nighttime, a rain begins to fall

      2. Throughout the evening, this rainfall extinguishes the fire

    9. Aftermath

      1. 300 dead

      2. Harrison to Chicago Avenue, and from the river to the lake

      3. 4 miles long by one mile wide

      4. 17,000 buildings

      5. 2,500 acres

      6. Financial loss $250 million

      7. 1 in 3 directly affected 100,000 out of 300,000

    10. Neither shaken, nor stirred

      1. Cities around the nation begin sending aid

      2. Aid takes form of money, clothing, blankets, food, and books

      3. Some cities don’t send aid, but rather letters saying it’s God’s curse upon a wicked city

      4. Infrastructure still sound

      5. The city will arise

    11. Like a Phoenix

      1. City does quickly turn around and rebuild, by pushing ruble into river, and starting over

      2. Money is monitored by the WASP’s in charge of city and given to those who can prove that pre-fire they were hard workers and or gave something back to the city

    12. Hunk a hunk a burning city

      1. Chicagoans have to do it first rate

      2. Largest urban fire in any city, bigger than London 1660

      3. City rebuilds within 2 years, BUT burns again in 1874

      4. Many insurance agencies go bankrupt in two fires and changes need to be made in architecture and the way that buildings are fireproofed

      5. With less forests in Wisconsin and Michigan, new construction methods are timely. Steel beam and Cement and Stone, the skyscrapers

    13. The City and the Environment

      1. Elevated street cars

      2. Filtered water, running water, sewer system

      3. Typhoid, small pox, TB, scarlet fever, whooping cough, measles, yellow fever

      4. Waste dumped into rivers, clean water found or waterways rerouted

      5. Noise levels

      6. Coal smoke

  5. Culture and Society in the Gilded Age

    1. "Conspicuous Consumption"

      1. Rich mingled and married with rich

      2. Flaunted riches

      3. Dinner parties

      4. Sports

        1. Polo

        2. Rowing

        3. Tennis

      5. Supported art, music, opera, ballet

    2. Gentility and the Middle Class

      1. Doctors, lawyers, teachers, ministers, and now managers, technicians, clerks, engineers

      2. Homes sanctuary, with manicured lawns and shrubs privacy and leisure

      3. Man traveled from home to work from suburb to city

      4. Appliances ‘improved’ life of housewife, yet created more work

      5. Culture practiced by middle class to uplift

      6. Sports

        1. Hiking, biking, camping, ice skating, roller skating

      7. Children allowed to be children

        1. Summer camps, manufactured toys, specific magazines, boy scouts

    3. Life in the Streets

      1. Growth of ethnic communities

      2. Y M and W CA’s for WASP hard working young people

      3. Women worked in home for extra money or rented rooms

      4. Lower income people tried to mimic consumption of middle class who mimicked the rich

      5. Native tongues continued

      6. German immigrants promoted ragtime from Storyville

      7. Amusement parks

      8. Swimming

  6. Cultures in Conflict, Culture in Common

    1. Education

      1. Growth of public education

        1. Latin, Greek, ancient history, religion

      2. Agricultural colleges

      3. Catholic Colleges

      4. Specialized training

        1. Pharmacy, doctors, lawyers, engineers, architects

      5. Women’s colleges and teaching schools

      6. Practical training

      7. Black colleges

      8. People trained for professions they would follow by class, gender, race

  7. Leisure and Public Space

    1. Parks

      1. Open spaces

      2. Used by some as play areas

      3. Drinking in parks

      4. Cities tried to control immigrants by regulating park use or drinking, liquor licenses

    2. National Pastimes

      1. Vaudeville

      2. Sports

        1. Baseball

          1. Initially allowed alcohol but tried to become more middle class by not allowing

          2. National League 1876

          3. African Americans not allowed in NL

          4. Negro Leagues 1920’s